This Episode is adapted from volume 3. Some of the key differences include:
In the Light Novel, Dust was also got arrested on purpose, because he wanted the warm food and shelter at the jail. Anime adaption cut out that portion.
In the LN, Kazuma threatened Aqua with revenge for how she only tried to save herself during his arrest. So when Aqua arrived at the jailhouse with ill-planned jailbreak schemes, she explained that they already planned to help him, and "NOT because she feared his punishment later." (an obvious lie)
Megumin likely knew Aqua's jailbreak plans will fail, but she will go along with any and all plans that allowed her to use Explosion.
LN Sena has a much more serious demeanor, and did not do the various poses during the trial.
While LN hinted that the trial is rigged and Alderp planned to have Kazuma executed from the start, the Anime took the concept way further and had executioners prepared and ready in the background.
In the LN, Aqua tried to "help" at Kazuma's defense trial, using what she learned from video games like "Based Attorney" and "Manganronpa." In the Anime, Kazuma was largely spared of Aqua's meddling.
In the LN, the Judge and Sena altered their judgments at the end in a very awkward manner, as if some supernatural presence altered their minds. In the Anime, Alderp simply forced the Judge to change Kazuma's sentencing.
In the LN, Darkness first revealed her high noble status towards the end of the trial in order to save Kazuma. In the Anime, they already revealed her nobility status in Season 1 Episode 10.
In the Anime, a group of Knights came to the party's mansion and confiscate everything of value. In the LN, that was implied, but never shown.